Saturday, January 08, 2005

Chesapeake Bay cleanup gets boost as six states and D.C. agree to set limits on nutrients from treatment plants 01/03/2005

The Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Calcium are 3 ingredients of the Fertilizer's. With the increase of popullations & thus the needs to increase the farm produce, more farmer's have increase the use of the man make chemical base fertilizers.

Certainly these residual would goes to the ground which contaminated our ground water. If the contaminations is not in check, all our drinking water quality would be in trouble. So do our health.

Hence , for our great health for our childrens' future, we must act now than later for our great heakth.

Chesapeake Bay cleanup gets boost

PHILADELPHIA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has reached agreement with six states and the District of Columbia on a permitting approach that will set permit limits on nutrients being discharged from more than 350 municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities throughout the 64,000-square-mile Chesapeake Bay watershed.

These permit limits would result in the reduction of about 17.5 million pounds of nitrogen and about one million pounds of phosphorus entering the Chesapeake Bay each year, which will directly help improve water quality.
“This is a pivotal step in the cleanup and protection of the Chesapeake Bay. EPA and the states have committed to making the Bay a healthy environment where plants, fish and other aquatic life can thrive and coexist with development,” said Donald S. Welsh, regional administrator for EPA’s mid-Atlantic region.

The discharge of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) from wastewater treatment is one of the most serious problems affecting the Chesapeake Bay. Excessive nutrients in the Bay cause algae blooms in the water, which leads to oxygen depletion and other adverse impacts on water quality. Excessive algae growth can also block sunlight that is critical to support plant and aquatic life.

States and EPA issue permits to all wastewater treatment facilities which regulate the amount of pollutants that can been discharged into waterways after treatment. The permitting approach announced today describes a consistent basin-wide approach to issue permits that include measurable and enforceable limits for nitrogen and phosphorus.

For years, permits have required nutrient removal to achieve localized water quality standards. However, the lack of science-based and achievable water quality standards for the Chesapeake Bay has made it difficult for the states and EPA to regulate nutrient reductions needed to protect the Bay.

EPA has been working with states for several years to develop a basin-wide strategy for these nutrient permit limits. This new strategy covers the entire 64,000-square-mile watershed, and describes how states and EPA plan to develop permit limits based on the living resource needs of the Bay. States participating in the strategy include Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York and West Virginia and the District of Columbia. Read More....
Newswire Article: Chesapeake Bay cleanup gets boost as six states and D.C. agree to set limits on nutrients from treatment plants 01/03/2005

Friday, January 07, 2005

Indy Water issues boil alert; schools delay start

When I read about the Chinese history of the Water & boiling of Water back to 6,000years ago. Then there is hardly the size of populations & Industries pollutions today.

But then the Emperor & Guru have been teaching people to boil water before one drink. My late mom have been boiling water for us to drink since baby, till today, I am still doing it.

And I found that the Water before boiling is consider as "Yin" & the Water After Boiled is having the "Yang-Chi".

My advise is that for your great health do drink 8 glass of filtered water & drink warm water only.

Indy Water issues boil alert; schools delay start
Equipment failure leads utility to take precautionary step; tests to show if water quality is affected.

By Kevin O'Neal
January 7, 2005

Equipment failure at an Indianapolis Water treatment station led the utility on Thursday afternoon to advise all customers to boil their drinking water.

That move created complications for residents, restaurants, hospitals and schools and had some people stocking up on bottled water.

The precautionary advisory, which the utility said was not a binding order and not related to flooding, was scheduled to last until about 4 p.m. today.

All Marion County school districts that are on the Indianapolis Water system planned to delay the start of classes by two hours today, and local superintendents scheduled a telephone conference for this morning to decide whether to cancel school, officials said.

The utility late Thursday was trying to find out when it would receive test results that would show whether the water quality had been affected, said spokeswoman Carolyn Mosby-Williams. That information could help schools decide whether to cancel classes.

Indianapolis Public Schools spokeswoman Mary Louise Bewley said the two-hour delay is intended to give schools time to obtain those water test results, expected about 8 a.m. Classes likely will be canceled if the water fails the tests.

In that case, Mosby-Williams said, the boil advisory also would likely be extended.

Mosby-Williams said she knew of no complaints of anyone becoming ill from the water. The water is safe for other uses, such as washing and bathing, she said.

Customers should boil drinking water for three minutes.

Indianapolis Water serves about 1.1 million people and processes an average of 138 million gallons a day. Its service area covers nearly all of Marion County, as well as parts of Morgan, Hendricks, Boone, Hamilton and Hancock counties.

Some school systems in that area, such as Speedway, are not on the Indianapolis Water system.

Mosby-Williams said tests should show whether customers were at risk from increased levels of coliform bacteria, which can cause nausea, cramps and diarrhea. The utility tests about 400 samples daily; additional samples were taken after the equipment failure.

The problem developed around 11 a.m. Thursday at the utility's White River treatment plant on the Near Northside, one of eight treatment facilities in the utility's service area in and around Marion County. A system that supplies the chemicals used to treat the water shut down, forcing the entire plant to shut down, Mosby-Williams said.

The White River plant is the largest of four plants in the utility's system, supplying about 55 percent of the water. When it shut down, there was a loss of water pressure, prompting some complaints from customers.

"We've closed up all the drinking fountains, and we've informed all of our staff and visitors," said Wishard Memorial Hospital spokeswoman Michelle O'Keefe.

"We're using only bottled water in the cafeteria. We will do all of these things until we're notified by the water company." Read More...
Indy Water issues boil alert; schools delay start

Thursday, January 06, 2005

Threat puts Florida water utilities on alert - News

During early 70's I was having my military services in Asia. There were terrorists attack on installations like Gas plants, oil refineries, Water reservoirs...Then we have to perform the duty to safe guard
these strategic installations.

While we shall increase our vigilants on these strategic installations, especially water supplies. We shall also educated all the people in this country to be responsible, not to create false alarm. In a united front to safe guard these public assets.

Threat puts Florida water utilities on alert

KISSIMMEE, FL � An anonymous phone call led workers to rush to make sure Osceola County's water supply was safe to drink, WFTV new channel reported yesterday.

Now, 13 water plants are on a heightened security alert after someone called a resident and said Kissimmee's water supply was contaminated and threatened there would be fatalities, the report said.

Police and water officials have been monitoring Osceola County's water plants since Tuesday night. The water supply is safe, but authorities aren't taking the call lightly, WFTV said.

Kissimmee police told the news station that they will be stepping up patrols at all of the water plants. If in fact this call was a hoax, police say that person will be facing criminal charges. Read More....

World Health Organization States Safe Drinking Water Immediate Priority

Back In my childhood days, both my late parent alway tell me that
education is the most top priority in Live. As the Guru Confusus said, learning or educating till old age.

Therefore the Safe Drinking Water Educations not only something that happen then educate them, it should be on going education for all age on the awareness as well as the positive actions need to be carried out.

World Health Organization States Safe Drinking Water Immediate Priority
1/6/2005 The immediate priority for the health of the displaced populations in the aftermath of the Southeast Asia earthquake and tsunami remains access to adequate supplies of safe drinking water. Additionally, pressing needs are sanitation and hygiene, shelter and access to basic medical supplies. With between three and five million people estimated to be possibly without access to such basic needs, disease outbreaks could lead to a significant increase in casualties. Already, a number of countries are reporting an increase in isolated cases of diarrhoeal diseases.

WHO continues to focus both on the health needs of the survivors and the reconstruction and rehabilitation of health systems. Guiding the public health relief effort in coordination with national and local authorities, communities, other UN organizations, NGOs and donors, WHO is concentrating on five key areas:

1. Disease surveillance: teams of experts have been deployed through the WHO Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN), reviewing the epidemiological situation on a daily basis. Identifying potential disease outbreaks as rapidly as possibly is key, in order to effectively respond.
2. Increasing access to essential health care: assessing the damage to the infrastructure and the needs of the populations, WHO is working closely with ministries of health of the affected countries to rebuild infrastructure as quickly as possible.
3. Technical public health guidance: to ensure essential public health needs are met, WHO is offering technical expertise on issues ranging from disposal of dead bodies, responses to disease outbreaks, maintaining water quality, dealing with excreta, sewage and chemical threats, managing chronic diseases, implementing vaccination programmes and addressing the mental health issues populations may face following this catastrophe.
4. Strengthening supply systems: ensuring supply of medicines, equipment, transport, vaccines and other vital assets.
5. Coordination of international health response: to ensure the right aid reaches the right people at the right time, WHO is guiding the international public health relief effort, to ensure the most efficient outcomes.

WHO Director-General Dr LEE, Jong-wook, is continuing his mission to the affected region today, visiting Aceh, Indonesia, to assess the extent of the devastation and more effectively plan WHO's response to the local populations.

Source: WHO
Water Online News for wastewater professionals

Wednesday, January 05, 2005

Energy Drinks Build Their Buzz

I can recall my first time drinking Red Bull. However, I am not really
into the habit of drinking Energy Drink's.

Perhaps that is due to my late mom influence. She is a strong believer of natural drink's. Therefore she rather serve drinks like Chicken Soup or Mutton Soup, or old & wild Ginsen when there is a need to replenish energy. As she said her dad told her that any man made drink's are no good for health.

My research & experience is actually on the need of drinking of filter water for your great health in the everyday life.

Energy Drinks Build Their Buzz
With the beverage industry's giants still on the sidelines, startups are doing whatever it takes to grab market share
How do you convince teens to buy your highly caffeinated, $2-a-can soft drink, when hundreds of other brands are jockeying for shelf space? Skip normal TV ads, for starters. In a field continually littered with new entries, each trying to out-extreme the other, small energy-drink companies are pursuing increasingly audacious marketing tactics.

Bridge jumping, a rocket launch, and even skydiving without parachutes have become the norm in this guerrilla-marketing street fight -- all in the attempt to garner attention and enough of a following to dominate a niche within a niche. A game of one-upmanship has broken out, which extends even to the brand names (Go Fast! recently lost its exclamatory supremacy to newcomer Crunk!!!).

Without a dominating presence by either Coca-Cola (KO ) or Pepsi (PEP ), makers of so-called energy drinks -- lightly carbonated beverages often loaded with caffeine and herbal extracts -- are all hoping they can become the next major brand. So far, only one leader has emerged: Austria-based Red Bull, a private company with roughly 60% market share and at least $150 million in annual revenue, according to Information Resources, a Chicago-based retail research firm.

MOVING TARGET. Inspired by the success of Red Bull, which began as a startup itself 18 years ago, more than 1,000 smaller players have entered the market, according to BevNET, a Boston-based beverage-industry trade Web site that reviews new products.

All the newcomers are trying to steal the spotlight, staging publicity stunts that are as jaw-dropping as they are risky, financially and otherwise. For many, clever marketing remains as much -- more, in some cases -- of a focus as the nuts and bolts of actually manufacturing and distributing the product.

The target market for energy drinks is mostly male teenagers and twentysomethings, a notoriously fickle bunch. So unlike the cola market, where Coke and Pepsi push their offerings to all soda-drinkers, most of the smaller power-drink players have decided that their best hope of gaining traction is by appealing to very specialized market segments.

"Right now there's an ability to get a toehold more quickly if you can build loyalty with a niche of the market," says Kelly O'Keefe, CEO of beverage marketer Emergence, based in Edmonton, Atlanta. "The margins are high enough that you can make money on a small run of the product."

SOMETHING FOR EVERYONE. Drinks have been aimed at consumers interested in extreme sports (Red Bull, Go Fast!), video games (Bawls Guarana, which sponsors gaming tournaments and encourages players to pull all-nighters), hip-hop (Crunk!!!, Pimp Juice, and DefCon 3), and even marijuana, courtesy of Merrilville (Ind.)-based brand Bong Water.

But even the tiniest of subniches have seen several competitors rise up, forcing companies to prove that their particular brands are "authentic" and "not corporate," says Go Fast! founder Troy Widgery, a former professional skydiver. That means one-upping the competition. Go Fast! sponsors an annual jumping event at a bridge in Colorado, so Red Bull struck back last June, backing a jumper who parachuted off France's Millau Bridge, the tallest in the world.

Not to be outdone, Go Fast! is now funding the development of a winged jumpsuit that will allow the wearer to glide out of a plane without a parachute. The company also funded construction of the first unmanned civilian rocket designed to be launched into space, which took off in May, 2004.

MR. RELEVANT. In the so-called Wing Suit Mission, project leader Jeb Corliss plans to land on his stomach, skidding to a halt after hitting the ground with a forward speed of over 80 miles per hour. "The guys at Pepsi haven't even been near a plane with the door off," says Widgery of Go Fast!, who adds, "same with Red Bull."

Within the hip-hop niche, rappers Nelly (Pimp Juice) and Fat Joe (Stinger) and megamogul Russell Simmons (DefCon 3) have built brands around their own, larger-than-life personalities. Jon Crecy, vice-president for sales and marketing at Crunk!!!, says each celebrity brand is out to prove it's "hipper" and "edgier" than the others. And of course, he claims his Crunk!!! label, promoted by rap star Lil Jon, reigns supreme.

"Let's face it, you can't get more relevant to a consumer than Lil Jon," Crecy says. "His music is rowdier, and he's got more energy." Thus far, Lil Jon appears to have at least mastered the art of cross promotion -- the bombastic performer named his latest album Crunk Juice and carries a bejeweled grail filled with the concoction to award shows and other public events (see "Lil Jon Crunks Up the Volume").

"That makes my drink and my brand bigger than any of those other drink brands," Lil Jon says. "I'm more of an integral part in the brand." Crunk!!! is primarily owned by liquor importer Sidney Frank, who started Grey Goose (until he sold the brand to Bacardi), and holds the U.S. licenses for Jagermeister and Corazon tequila.

GETTING THE DRINKS OUT. But edgy marketing means little in the beverage industry without solid distribution. "None of these companies will be able to go [nationwide] overnight," says John Craven, editor-in-chief of A company that wants to sell its product in all 50 states needs between 250 and 300 distributors, he says.

Building those relationships remains a challenge for small companies: Go Fast! currently has about 25 distributors, and Crunk!!!, which started less than a year ago, has only six, mostly in the South and New York.

While Coke's KMX and Pepsi's SoBe Adrenaline Rush lag behind Red Bull, with market shares in the low single digits, that could change very quickly. "If you were to look 10 years back at bottled water, you wouldn't see [Coke-owned] Dasani and [Pepsi-owned] Aquafina" on the Top 10 list, says Emergence's Kelly O'Keefe. "There's still a lot of shaking out to be done." Read More...
Energy Drinks Build Their Buzz

Green benefits from canning plant wastewater

This initiative seem to be good alternative.

However, I do know that there still certain contaminations may take place during the canning of food, such as the Zinc, Leads, & chemical preservatives. Therefore, my recommendations is that there must be some kind of water filtrations process 1st before it is bottled for the crop irriggation.

So that when the crop is consumed by people would be safe from heavy metals & chemical contaminations.

Green benefits from canning plant wastewater
05/01/2005 - Irrigation with wastewater from the canning industry is not harmful to the quality of agricultural soil and may even, in some cases, improve it, according to a new PhD thesis from the Public University of Navarre in Spain.

The vegetable canning industries, by the very nature of its processes, produce a considerable volume of low-contaminant effluents. A research project began in 1996 to determine the viability of agricultural irrigation as an alternative to the dumping of this wastewater.

To this end, three trials were carried out, two in Villafranca and one in Valtierra, locations in the Ebro river basin region of Navarre with vegetable canning plants located on three agricultural soils representatives of the zone.

Iñigo Abdón Virto Quecedo’s research project involved the characterisation of the soils at the three trial sites in order to subsequently evaluate the effect of irrigation with waste waters from industrial canneries, as a function of the doses received and the type of handling/ kind of irrigation undertaken for the crop.

The viability of these kinds of systems depends fundamentally on the nature of the soil under use, the irrigation system and the type of crop planted. These are the factors that have to be considered when installing irrigation systems using wastewater.

Thus, in soils on which there is permanent meadowland, such as alfalfa orray grass meadows and where sprinkler irrigation has taken place, a “positive evolution” of the soil was observed, given that “this water is not contaminant but provides a significant injection of organic material and other types of elements that can be positive for the development of the soil”.

Nevertheless, on these types of soils any kind of irrigated meadow crop enhances the soil, independently of the type of water used for the irrigation. Read More....
Green benefits from canning plant wastewater

Water system repairs are costly

The Nitrate is one of the fertilizer's that need by plants & Vegetables, NPK with the correct mix would help to produce nice flow, seeds, melon..fruits..vegetables....etc.

However, over the year, too many application on the farm would certainly contaminate the ground water. Off course for the after effect then to put things right would not only cost more money but also the time & afforts.

Therefore, prevention is still is better than cure.

Water system repairs are costly
BY ART HOVEY / Lincoln Journal Star

Seward has already built a $4.3 million water treatment plant, and Fairbury is finishing work on an $850,000 filtration plant.

York is drilling test wells east of town as the first step in a $7.2 million upgrade in its drinking water system. City officials there hope that effort � and seven consecutive years of across-the-board increases in water bills � will push back the date for a treatment plant.

A plant could drive total costs in York close to $15 million.

Rising nitrate levels, new federal standards for other contaminants, drought and aging infrastructure are among drinking-water problems pressuring cities across Nebraska to pay for expensive solutions.

"Nebraska, like other states in the nation, its water systems are getting old," said Jack Daniel, who presides over drinking water issues for the state Department of Health and Human Services.

In fact, the Nebraska State Revolving Fund, which helps finance water needs, lists 209 pending projects and $320 million in pending costs for new wells, water mains and other necessities in fiscal 2005.

That's up from 184 projects and $302 million for the fiscal year that ended June 30.

Some of the most ample groundwater resources in the nation allowed many of the state's more than 500 municipalities to drill relatively shallow wells in the direction of their growth through the last century, Daniel said.

But more recently, mayors and city councils are discovering the down side to shallow wells. That includes dropping water levels, vulnerability to contamination and no pipes connecting wells that would allow treatment or blending to cut water contamination levels.

"When our towns have to do corrective action," he said, "it costs them more than towns in other parts of this nation."

A typical small town might have three wells. "So then, if you have to treat, the first thing you can see that you have to do is replumb the town to bring the water together. So that's a very significant extra expense for Nebraska."

In York, Public Works Director Orville Davidson manages a system that has 13 wells within city limits, one outside city limits and no central connection. Two wells are shut down because of nitrate problems.

"We have problems with pumping capacity in the summer months in a drought season," Davidson said.

But it is not strictly a quantity issue, said City Administrator Jack Vavra. "Our issue is that we have some periods of time when some of our wells don't meet standards and we have to shut them down. Then we can get into volume issues."

Efforts toward long-term water security have already begun with the drilling of test holes for new wells in an area that extends about five miles to the east and 400 feet down to bedrock.

A water main at least 16 inches in diameter would bring new water to town and allow older wells to be retired. If things go according to plan, the need for a treatment plant could be pushed back at least as far as 2011.

But none of it comes cheap. Seven consecutive years of increases in York water rates � from eight to 12 percent each year through 2009 � will raise the monthly water bill for a family of four from $19.19 to $36.

Back in Seward, water rates will rise 14.5 percent by 2006 as city officials get contaminants in check, including nitrates that could no longer be held under the federal standard.

And dozens of other cities across the state are facing similar challenges. Read More...
Printable Version

Water shortages halt development in Utah

I can recall my Childhood days that experience the water Rationing . The family have to take turns to ferry water from the village supply point to home.

These experience I still can remember till today. The city or district planning authority must plan ahead in anticipating the demand , before a new development is carried out, not having a "Fire Fighting" attitube.

Water shortages halt development in Utah

LAYTON, UT � Amid Utah's long drought, three rapidly growing Davis County communities have halted development until a secure water supply can be guaranteed, according to an Associated Press (AP) report in yesterday's .

The water provided now in Syracuse, West Point and Layton recharges local reservoirs through an agreement with water conservancy districts that treat the water and sell it back to the county at a reduced cost, the AP said.

County officials are looking to boost water before the population spikes in the area. The new requirement has been made to safeguard some areas to water shortages and distribute evenly, the article noted.

Clinton and South Weber city leaders are looking at adopting similar water requirements. Read More...
Water shortages halt development in Utah

Tuesday, January 04, 2005

Study: Diuretics a net plus for elderly

Some few years back, when I was told that my blood pressure is on the high side. The my doctor advise me that I should take less salt & drink more water.

These is exactly my Mom have advised the family & discipline the family during the childhood period. It is exactly work after I drink at least 8 glass of water & do meditations my blood presure have came down to safe level.

So, please drinks minimum 8 glass of water a day for your great health.

Study: Diuretics a net plus for elderly
TRENTON, N.J. (AP) — Diuretics, pills used by millions of elderly people to lower high blood pressure, clearly reduce the long-term risk of death from heart attacks and strokes, according to a study that could ease fears that the medication's risks outweigh its benefits.

Diuretics, which work by removing fluid from the body, have been used for decades. But doctors have realized in the past few years that the drugs raise the risk of developing diabetes, which itself can lead to heart attacks and strokes.

As a result, some doctors were afraid that diuretics' risks would cancel out their benefits.

The first long-term study to examine the question found that while diuretics do raise the risk of diabetes, the rate of death from heart attacks or strokes was still nearly 15% lower in patients getting a diuretic compared to those who were given dummy pills.

"This is the most conclusive information we're likely to have, at least for some time," said Dr. Jeffrey Cutler, senior scientific adviser at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a sponsor of the study. "I think this will further reassure physicians."

National guidelines list diuretics as a first-line treatment for high blood pressure. Nevertheless, some doctors have avoided prescribing diuretics since research linked them to diabetes.

The new study, published in the January issue of the American Journal of Cardiology, was partly funded by the National Institute on Aging and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation of Plainsboro, N.J. It was led by Dr. John Kostis, director of the Cardiovascular Institute at UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School in New Brunswick, N.J.

The researchers looked at chlorthalidone, a member of the most common class of diuretics.

Kostis and colleagues at University of Texas School of Public Health in Houston followed 4,732 patients with high blood pressure for an average of more than 14 years. At the end of that period, 19% of patients given diuretics were dead from cardiovascular causes, compared with 22% of those who got dummy pills.

When the study began, about 17% of patients in each group had diabetes. During the four years that followed, an additional 13% of patients on diuretics and 9% of patients on dummy pills developed diabetes.

Among patients who developed diabetes, there was a 32% lower risk of cardiovascular death in the diuretics group. REad More.... - Study: Diuretics a net plus for elderly

Monday, January 03, 2005

Oyster Idea In Md. Hits Rough Reas

Back in perhaps few hundred thousands years ago, our earth plate were in one. Then the sea water is just into one sea. The sea water pollutions were not as alarming until the Industralization era.

After the 2nd world war, the earth populations are going through explosion. Couple with the explosion of Manufacturing & Industries sectors, wastes are dump into the sea & polluted air release to the air. Hence, our water are pollluted & contaminated.

I believe, using enzymes to clean up the sea water contaminations is a better solutions than using Oyster. As fisher men & businessmen may be ignorance, & capitalize on these polluted oysters in the market place.

Then, beside the Oyster, other fish's will be contaminated as well. My view is that we shall look up for the best sollution to clean-up already contaminated sea water for the great health of the world.

Oyster idea in Md. hits rough seas
By Traci Watson, USA TODAY

The Chesapeake Bay, the nation's largest estuary, is looking for a savior. And Maryland's governor hopes he's found it in a strange mollusk from the other side of the world.

Robert Ehrlich is considering a plan to dump thousands of Asian oysters into the bay, believing that the foreign species could revive the nearly extinct oyster industry — and rejuvenate the Chesapeake by filtering harmful chemicals out of the water.

Problem is, nobody else seems to like the idea. Foreign-born animals that have made it into the USA often go wild, shoving aside native species and breeding out of control. The noisy bird called the European starling, for example, has displaced native songbirds after being turned loose in the USA by misguided bird lovers. And a South American rodent called the nutria, released to start a fur industry, is destroying southern wetlands.

"A number of non-native species that have been introduced with good intentions have brought ecological disaster," says Michael Fritz of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chesapeake Bay office. Maryland's idea for importing Asian oysters "raises concerns," he said.

But the high-stakes issues facing the Chesapeake Bay, and the desperate need for solutions, underscore just how far states might go to solve seemingly hopeless environmental problems.

The bay is among the nation's richest estuaries, the waterways where freshwater and saltwater mix. Once it boasted billions of native oysters that supported a thriving fishing industry, helped keep the bay clean and fed a nation hungry for oyster stew.

Since 1900, overfishing, pollution and diseases have devastated the bay's oysters and the lucrative oyster harvest. Maryland officials see the Asian Suminoe oyster as a potential solution, partly because of its resiliency — the Suminoe lives along the coasts of China and other Asian nations and may be resistant to diseases that kill its U.S. cousin.

"The Asian oyster brings real hope that we can return the bay to the crown jewel it once was," Ehrlich said in announcing the proposal. But the EPA, environmentalists and university scientists have raised a stink about Maryland's proposal. They say too little is known about the Asian oyster. They fear the newcomer would supplant the native oysters.

Bringing in the Asian oyster before studies are complete would be "ill-advised" and "imprudent," says a recent report written by a panel of scientists for the National Research Council, the premier U.S. scientific institution. Maryland is acting with "an abundance of optimism and a relative dearth of information," says a statement by the environmental agencies of New Jersey and Delaware.

Other invasive species in the USA include the zebra mussel, which probably piggybacked into the country on ships and now clogs pipes in much of America, and the snakehead fish. Snakeheads, often dumped into rivers by people who bought them as food or pets, are gobbling native fish in several states.

Despite the warnings, Ehrlich sent the EPA a letter this fall, asking the agency not to study the issue for too long, according to The Sun in Baltimore.

Criticism of the state has been so fierce that Maryland officials recently formed a panel of scientists to help it decide whether enough is known about the Asian oyster to introduce it to the bay. The state's decision is expected in March.

Maryland's point man on the oyster says the state has spent millions of dollars on research to answer questions.

"I believe that a number of questions that have been raised can be answered one-quarter by March," says Pete Jensen of the state's Department of Natural Resources. The goal is "being able to come to a conclusion that is supported by science."

If Maryland decides to go ahead, no one could stop it. U.S. law bans the spread of only a few exotic species. The Asian oyster is not among them. So one state could change the fortunes of many others that still have thriving beds of native oysters.

"The benefits to the Chesapeake Bay of more oysters might not be what Texas wants," says oyster scientist Roger Newell of the University of Maryland's Center for Environmental Science. "It's a very tricky question."

What if the state decides not to seed the bay with Asian oysters? That raises the possibility of a dreaded "rogue introduction" — oysters dumped in the bay by impatient fishermen or shellfish farmers who decide to take matters into their own hands.

"I know damn well it's going to happen," says Larry Simns, head of the Maryland Watermen's Association, which represents fishermen. "It's only a matter of time."

Assuming the Asian oyster can survive in U.S. waters, so little is known about it that it could be a total bust.

No one knows how fast it grows, for example, or whether it harbors diseases that could affect diners. Research to fill in the blanks won't be done by March.

The controversy hasn't deterred those who see the Asian oyster as a possible answer to their prayers. Large populations of Asian oysters would filter out chemicals that pollute the bay's water, the state's Jensen says. That would be good news for blue crabs, striped bass and other bay species. Read More.... - Oyster idea in Md. hits rough seas

Sunday, January 02, 2005

Water agencies are studying plan to tap seawater

In the places whereby, the shortage of Water supply from the mountain & rivers, perhaps the best methode is either producing Water from the Air or for those with area fronting sea, desalination is the best alternative.

However, there should be consideration on have the treatment plant for those Waste Water & Water after treated that returning to the sea, so that not to cause further contamination & killing to the life in the sea.

Water agencies are studying plan to tap seawater

December 29, 2004

Water officials in San Diego and Orange counties have determined there are no insurmountable obstacles that would prevent construction of a desalination facility near the San Onofre nuclear plant.

Encouraged by the conclusions of an early study conducted by the San Diego County Water Authority and the Municipal Water District of Orange County, officials are turning toward getting other stakeholders to support the project.

They include Camp Pendleton, which owns the site; Southern California Edison, which operates the San Onofre plant; and state regulators, who will issue the permits.

The desalination plant could supply southern Orange County, San Diego County and Camp Pendleton with up to 100 million gallons of potable water daily.

Should all parties agree to a more detailed study, it would be at least a decade before water could be produced.

There are significant obstacles to overcome, however.

They range from persuading Camp Pendleton to permit the plant to be sited on the base to the public's perception about the quality of the water and the nearby nuclear power plant.

Additionally, environmentalists are wary of plans to develop desalination projects next to power plants.

Some answers might be forthcoming in about 60 days when a decision will be made on moving forward with a detailed feasibility study.

Water districts are drawn to the San Onofre site because of the decommissioning of the Unit One nuclear reactor, which went online in 1968 and was shuttered in 1992.

The pipes used to draw in seawater to cool the reactor could be used, lowering the cost of building a desalination plant by tens of million of dollars.

Officials at Edison and Camp Pendleton are neutral on the project, but they have expressed some concerns.

For Edison, the project cannot impede the ongoing decommissioning and the power plant's current operations.

Once the Unit One reactor is removed, the site will be used to store nuclear waste until a dump opens at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, said Ray Golden, an Edison spokesman.

Edison, however, is expected to remove the cooling pipes as part of the decommissioning, but the utility is trying to convince state regulators it would be environmentally sound to leave the pipes in place.

The state is conducting an environmental impact report on that matter.

Units two and three, which generate enough power for 2.2 million homes, have permits good through 2022 and an option for a 20-year extension, Golden said.

For Camp Pendleton, the issue is one of compatibility. Any plan that does not further Pendleton's primary mission – to train Marines – is greeted with skepticism, said Edmund Rogers, a civilian who represents the base on the water authority's board of directors.

San Diego Baykeeper, though not yet taking a stand, has reservations about putting a desalination project next to a coastal power plant.

Placing a desalination facility next to a power plant is likely to extend the operating life of the electricity producer, increasing the danger to the environment, said Bruce Reznik, Baykeeper's executive director. Read More.... > News > Metro -- Water agencies are studying plan to tap seawater

EPA 625/R-00/008 Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Special Issues Fact Sheet 3

After going throught the experience of using Bottled, R.O. & Softener system.

As weell as research into the needs of our body. I found that the best thing to decide wheather you need which system best for your home or office is highly dependent on the city & Water district you are in. It is best to check with your Water District to find out the technical datas of your water in the area.

On the drinking water issue, our body require the soluble minerals which can be found in the water supply by the district. It don't make sense to take it out those needed minerals & buying the pills..etc.

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Special Issues Fact Sheet 3 Water Softeners


Home water softeners, which periodically generate a backwash that is high in sodium, magnesium, and calcium concentrations, can affect wastewater treatment processes and the composition and structure of the infiltration field biomat and the underlying soil. However, attempts to predict whether impacts will occur and to estimate their severity are difficult and often inconclusive.

Water softeners remove "hardness" (dissolved calcium and magnesium) through ion exchange processes. Incoming hard water passes through a tank of containing high-capacity ion exchange resin beads supersaturated with sodium. The calcium and magnesium ions in the water attach to the resin beads, replacing the sodium, which is released into the water. The softened water is then distributed for use throughout the house.

Over time, the ion exchange resin beads become saturated with calcium and magnesium ions. When this occurs, the tank must be recharged by flushing with a salt brine solution. Sodium ions reclaim their position on the resin beads, and the calcium and magnesium ions are released into the backwash water. The backwash water then exits the tank and is discharged to the wastewater treatment system. The number of times the tank is recharged and the amount of wastewater generated depends on a number of factors, including the hardness of the water, the amount of water used, the size of the water softener, and the capacity of the resins to remove calcium and magnesium.

The wastewater generated during the recharge phase of the water softening process mixes with other household wastewaters, enters the septic tank, and eventually moves to the soil adsorption field. Studies conducted by soil scientists at the University of Wisconsin and the National Sanitation Foundation conclude that the wastewater effluent generated from properly operating and maintained water softeners will not harm onsite systems that are designed, operated, and maintained appropriately. Specifically, the studies conclude the following:

* High concentrations of calcium and manganese in the softener backwash water have no deleterious effect on the biological functions occurring in the septic tank and may, in some cases, be helpful.
* The additional volume of wastewater generated (typically about 50 gallons per recharge cycle) is added slowly to the wastewater stream and does not cause any hydraulic overload problems.
* • Soil structure in the soil absorption field is positively affected by the calcium and mangnesium ions in water softener effluent (Corey et al., 1977).

Regarding the last conclusion, some people have the misconception that the salt brine that enters the ion exchange tank also exits the tank as wastewater. In fact, the influent with its high concentration of sodium ions is very different than the effluent, which has a high concentration of calcium and magnesium ions. Consequently, the potential for chemical clogging of clayey soil by sodium ions is reduced. The calcium and magnesium input may even help improve soil percolation.

Risk management issues

The human health impacts of ingesting softened water are increasingly discussed in addition to the traditional benefits of reduced use of surfactants and plumbing repair requirements. The choice of the homeowner to soften or not to soften will factor into all arguments. Also, the preceding descriptions are predicated on whole-house-supply softening. Today point-of-use devices designed for use with specific features in the house make the traditional advantages and disadvantages less clear. Read More...
EPA 625/R-00/008 Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Special Issues Fact Sheet 3

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