Wednesday, February 09, 2005

Environmental groups question uranium plant’s impact on water - Need To Review

Well learning from the experience of Okinawa & Hiroshima after maths of the Atomic Bombs also the Nuclear Power plant leaks in Russia.

For the Geat Health of the People, I am calling upon the authority to re-think about their decision in building the Uranium plant's in Lousiana.

For the Love of People the decision must be cancel!!!!!

Environmental groups question uranium plant’s impact on water
Last Update: 02/08/2005 8:45:57 AM
By: Associated Press

HOBBS (AP) - Two environmental groups say that if a nuclear-fuel plant is built near Eunice, it could end up releasing uranium-contaminated water into nearby aquifers.

That testimony came from officials of two Washington-based groups: Nuclear Information and Resource Service and Public Citizen. The groups were in Hobbs for the first of a weeklong series of hearings on the proposed nuclear-fuel plant.

The consortium Louisiana Energy Services has filed a license application for the plant. Officials of Louisiana Energy Services say the facility would be safe.

LES wants to build the $1.2 billion plant to refine uranium for nuclear reactors. It says the plant will be a big boost for the region’s economy. Local officials have been largely supportive.

Tuesday, February 08, 2005

Clean Water Fund Facing Major Cuts - Action To Call Off

This is certainly not a good news for all of us in US.

I am calling all like mind concern to write to your Congressman & State govewrnment's for the President Bush to Call off this action.

Clean Water is a important live line for American. Cutting of funds would put more lives at risk for Water Contaminations.

More people get ill because of water pollution would cause more expenses in Medical bills. Then there would be more bankruptcy in America.

More lives would be loss.

Clean Water Fund Facing Major Cuts

The discretionary budget of the Environmental Protection Agency would be cut by 5.6 percent, to $7.57 billion, under President Bush's budget.

The greatest single cuts would be in federal payments to a joint state-federal fund that underwrites projects to improve water quality.

The fund is now worth $52 billion.

The $369 million cut in the Clean Water State Revolving Fund would leave the fund with annual federal payments of $730 million, down from $1.98 billion four years ago, said Linda Eichmiller, a spokeswoman for the Association of State and Interstate Water Pollution Control Administrators.

"The infrastructure needs that relate to clean water are well over $200 billion," Ms. Eichmiller said. "We have a fund that is not adequate to meet those needs. If we don't build up the fund to take care of those needs, there are going to be problems."

The budget proposes increasing the sum to clean up urban industrial sites, or brownfields, by $46.9 million, to $210 million.

Congress allocated $163 million to it for the current fiscal year.

The amount allocated to the Superfund, the fund established to clean up major toxic waste sites, was slightly increased, to $1.28 billion from $1.25 billion.

At the Interior Department, $90 million in cuts in the National Park Service budget for land acquisition and state grants were among the major items leading to a proposed overall 1 percent reduction.

The proposed total cut of $119 million would reduce the department's budget, to $10.65 billion from the $10.77 billion that Congress approved for the 2005. fiscal year.

In a budget briefing on Monday, Interior Secretary Gale A. Norton emphasized the administration's support to open the Arctic National Wildlife Reserve for oil and gas drilling.

Ms. Norton said the department anticipated that bids for the rights to exploit the first tracts open in the reserve would total $2.4 billion in the 2007 fiscal year.
The New York Times > Washington > Clean Water Fund Facing Major Cuts

Monday, February 07, 2005

Get To Know The pH-Scale  Posted by Hello

Understand About landed in pH

I am totally ignorance about pH of Water & Drinking Water before I live in the USA.

Now, after all these years of research, I feel to it is important to share these knowledge with everyone, in view of the danger of these highly polluted world.

pH 7 have 10 times Hydrogen ion (H+) than pH 8

Remember, if your drinking water pH is 7 that is neutral.

By the continuous blog awareness & education then we can spreadhead about Clean & Safe Drinking & Applicable Water for your Great Health.

pH Why Is it Important?

The pH of a sample of water is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions. The term pH was derived from the manner in which the hydrogen ion concentration is calculated - it is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration. What this means to those of us who are not mathematicians is that at higher pH, there are fewer free hydrogen ions, and that a change of one pH unit reflects a tenfold change in the concentrations of the hydrogen ion. For example, there are 10 times as many hydrogen ions available at a pH of 7 than at a pH of 8.

The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.

A pH of 7 is considered to be neutral.
Substances with pH of less that 7 are acidic;
substances with pH greater than 7 are basic.

ph scale

The pH of water determines the solubility (amount that can be dissolved in the water) and biological availability (amount that can be utilized by aquatic life) of chemical constituents such as nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon) and heavy metals (lead, copper, cadmium, etc.). For example, in addition to affecting how much and what form of phosphorus is most abundant in the water, pH may also determine whether aquatic life can use it. In the case of heavy metals, the degree to which they are soluble determines their toxicity. Metals tend to be more toxic at lower pH because they are more soluble.

Reasons for Natural Variation

Photosynthesis uses up dissolved carbon dioxide which acts like carbonic acid (H2CO3) in water. CO2 removal, in effect, reduces the acidity of the water and so pH increases. In contrast, respiration of organic matter produces CO2, which dissolves in water as carbonic acid, thereby lowering the pH. For this reason, pH may be higher during daylight hours and during the growing season, when photosynthesis is at a maximum. Respiration and decomposition processes lower pH. Like dissolved oxygen concentrations, pH may change with depth in a lake, due again to changes in photosynthesis and other chemical reactions. There is typically a seasonal decrease in pH in the lower layers of a stratified lake because CO2 accumulates. There is no light for plants to fix CO2 and decomposition releases CO2.

Fortunately, lake water is complex; it is full of chemical "shock absorbers" that prevent major changes in pH. Small or localized changes in pH are quickly modified by various chemical reactions, so little or no change may be measured. This ability to resist change in pH is called buffering capacity. Not only does the buffering capacity control would-be localized changes in pH, it controls the overall range of pH change under natural conditions. The pH scale may go from 0 to 14, but the pH of natural waters hovers between 6.5 and 8.5.

Expected Impact of Pollution

When pollution results in higher algal and plant growth (e.g., from increased temperature or excess nutrients), pH levels may increase, as allowed by the buffering capacity of the lake. Although these small changes in pH are not likely to have a direct impact on aquatic life, they greatly influence the availability and solubility of all chemical forms in the lake and may aggravate nutrient problems. For example, a change in pH may increase the solubility of phosphorus, making it more available for plant growth and resulting in a greater long-term demand for dissolved oxygen.

Values for pH are reported in standard pH units, usually to one or two decimal places depending upon the accuracy of the equipment used.

Since pH represents the negative logarithm of a number, it is not mathematically correct to calculate simple averages or other summary statistics.

Instead, pH should be reported as a median and range of values; alternatively the values could be converted to hydrogen ion concentrations, averaged, and re-converted to pH values.

Generally, during the summer months in the upper portion of a productive or eutrophic lakes, pH will range between 7.5 and 8.5. In the bottom of the lake or in less productive lakes, pH will be lower, 6.5 to 7.5, perhaps. This is a very general statement to provide an example of the differences you might measure.

The Case of Acid Rain

An important exception to the buffering of pH changes in lakes is the case of lakes affected by acid rain. Lakes that have received too much rain with a low pH (acid rain), lose their buffering capacity. At a certain point, it takes only a small bit of rain or snowmelt runoff for the pH to change. After that point, change occurs relatively quickly. According to the EPA, a pH of 5-6 or lower has been found to be directly toxic to fish (for additional information, see our acid rain links).

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