Friday, March 18, 2005

Climate Change Inevitable -- Is Our Duty To Reverse It!!

Gerald Meehl. "Even if we stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations, the climate will continue to warm, and there will be proportionately even more sea level rise. The longer we wait, the more climate change we are committed to in the future."

This is a alarming statement!! You see what is the use for us to cry over these?? For what is happening & about to happen is not just would be gone away by talking about it. Kyoto Accord!! is suppose to get all into actions. But these are far from getting countries to put act together.

In my opinion, reducing the Carbon dioxide is the key issue!! So looking at the actions to stop:

Coal Fire Power Plant

Fossil Fuel Power Plant

Hydroelectric Power Plant..etc.

The world must take seriously in:

Stop Cutting Trees

Planting Trees & Reforrestations Today.

So that we would have more Oxygen & clean water for our future generation.

Climate Change Inevitable

[Climate Change Inevitable]
Even if all greenhouse gases had been stabilized in the year 2000, we would still be committed to a warmer Earth and greater sea level rise in the present century, according to a new study by a team of climate modelers at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The findings are published in this week's issue of the journal Science.
The modeling study quantifies the relative rates of sea level rise and global temperature increase that we are already committed to in the 21st century. Even if no more greenhouse gases were added to the atmosphere, globally averaged surface air temperatures would rise about a half degree Celsius (one degree Fahrenheit) and global sea levels would rise another 11 centimeters (4 inches) from thermal expansion alone by 2100.

"Many people don’t realize we are committed right now to a significant amount of global warming and sea level rise because of the greenhouse gases we have already put into the atmosphere," says lead author Gerald Meehl. "Even if we stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations, the climate will continue to warm, and there will be proportionately even more sea level rise. The longer we wait, the more climate change we are committed to in the future."

The half-degree temperature rise is similar to that observed at the end of the 20th century, but the projected sea level rise is more than twice the 3-inch (5-centimeter) rise that occurred during the latter half of the previous century. These numbers do not take into account fresh water from melting ice sheets and glaciers, which could at least double the sea level rise caused by thermal expansion alone.

The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation, which currently warms Europe by transporting heat from the tropics, weakens in the models. Even so, Europe heats up with the rest of the planet because of the overwhelming effect of greenhouse gases.

Though temperature rise shows signs of leveling off 100 years after stabilization in the study, ocean waters continue to warm and expand, causing global sea level to rise unabated.

The paper concludes with a cogent statement by Meehl: "With the ongoing increase in concentrations of GHGs [greenhouse gases], every day we commit to more climate change in the future. When and how we stabilize concentrations will dictate, on the time scale of a century or so, how much more warming we will experience. But we are already committed to ongoing large sea level rise, even if concentrations of GHGs could be stabilized."

The inevitability of the climate changes described in the study is the result of thermal inertia, mainly from the oceans, and the long lifetime of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Thermal inertia refers to the process by which water heats and cools more slowly than air because it is denser than air.

The new study is the first to quantify future committed climate change using "coupled" global three-dimensional climate models. Coupled models link major components of Earth's climate in ways that allow them to interact with each other. Meehl and his NCAR colleagues ran the same scenario a number of times and averaged the results to create ensemble simulations from each of two global climate models. Then they compared the results from each model.

The scientists also compared possible climate scenarios in the two models during the 21st century in which greenhouse gases continue to build in the atmosphere at low, moderate, or high rates. The worst-case scenario projects an average temperature rise of 3.5°C (6.3°F) and sea level rise from thermal expansion of 30 centimeters (12 inches) by 2100. All scenarios analyzed in the study will be assessed by international teams of scientists for the next report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, due out in 2007.

The NCAR team used the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), developed by NCAR and the Department of Energy, and the new Community Climate System Model (Version 3). The CCSM3 was developed at NCAR with input from university and federal climate scientists around the country and principal funding from the National Science Foundation (NCAR’s primary sponsor) and the Department of Energy. The CCSM3 shows slightly higher temperature rise and sea level rise from thermal expansion and greater weakening of the thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic. Otherwise, the results from the two models are similar. The models were run on supercomputers at NCAR and several DOE labs and on the Earth Simulator in Japan.

Thursday, March 17, 2005

How to prepare a planet for global warming

The situations of These Green House effects is alarming.

It is necessary to do something to stop these to prevent our heirs from the suffering.

In my opinions,

we need to stop the Lodging of Trees.

Plant more Trees.

Stop using fossil fuel for energy generations

Encourage people to eat fruits & vegetables instead of Animal meats. Such as Breef.

Restore of rivers & natural terrains

Build homes & buildings with energy saving technology.


How to prepare a planet for global warming
Convinced the phenomenon is inevitable, some scientists now focus on coping with it.

By Peter N. Spotts | Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor

Scientists have long warned that some level of global warming is a done deal - due in large part to heat-trapping greenhouse gases humans already have pumped skyward.

Now, however, researchers are fleshing out how much future warming and sea-level rise the world has triggered. The implicit message: "We can't stop this, so how do we live with it?" says Thomas Wigley, a climate researcher at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colo.

One group, led by Gerald Meehl at NCAR, used two state-of-the-art climate models to explore what could happen if the world had held atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases steady since 2000.

The results: Even if the world had slammed on the brakes five years ago, global average temperatures would rise by about 1 degree Fahrenheit by the end of the 21st century. Sea levels would rise by another 4 inches over 20th-century increases, just from expansion of the warming water. Rising sea-levels would continue well beyond 2100, even without adding water from melting glaciers and ice sheets. The rise highlights the oceans' enormous capacity to absorb heat and its slow reaction to changes in atmospheric conditions.

The team ran each model several times with a range of "what if" concentrations, as well as observed concentrations, for comparison.

Temperatures eventually level out, Dr. Meehl says in reviewing his team's results. "But sea-level increases keep on going. The relentless nature of sea-level rise is pretty daunting."

Dr. Wigley took a slightly different approach with a simpler model. He ran simulations that capped emissions, as well as concentrations, at 2000 levels. And he ran his calculations out to the year 2400. If concentrations are held constant, warming could exceed 1.8 degrees F. by 2400. If annual emissions are held at 2000 levels, warming could range from nearly 4 degrees to roughly 11 degrees F. The outcome depends on how sensitive the climate truly is to changes in greenhouse gases.

Wigley also calculates rates of sea-level rise. These range from 4 inches per century when limiting greenhouse- gas concentrations, to nearly 10 inches if annual emissions are held at 2000 levels. In this case, melting glaciers and ice sheets are taken into account.

The two researchers add that far from holding steady, concentrations of greenhouse gases continue to rise. Thus, at best, the results point to the least change people can expect, they say.

Both studies were published in Friday's edition of the journal Science.

The idea that some level of global climate change from human activities is inevitable is not new. But the word has been slow to make its way into the broader debate.

"Many people don't realize we are committed right now to a significant amount of global warming and sea-level rise. The longer we wait, the more climate change we are committed to in the future," Meehl says.

These studies are part of a wider effort to build the basis for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's next set of reports, slated for release in 2007.

While the concept of climate-change commitment isn't new, these fresh results "tell us what's possible and what's realistic" and that for the immediate future, "prevention is not on the table," says Roger Pielke Jr., director of the Center for Science and Technology Policy Research at the University of Colorado at Boulder.

To Pielke and others, this means adaptation should be given a much higher priority that it's received to date. "There's a cultural bias in favor of prevention," he says. But any sound policy includes preparation as well, he adds. "We have the scientific and technological knowledge we need to improve adaptation" and apply that knowledge globally.

How to prepare a planet for global warming |

Tuesday, March 15, 2005

Fla. lawmaker's toilet paper tax likely to tank

The suggestions sound good intension. However, I felt that these fall short of addressing the issues of ground water pollutions.

Perhaps the best way is examing the cause of these pollutions or contaminations, then apply penalty to those who committed to the offence.

Also impose a 1.5% Levy for water pollutions control fund.

Fla. lawmaker's toilet paper tax likely to tank

March 12, 2005

TALLAHASSEE, Fla. - The Florida Legislature is flush with good ideas.

Sen. Al Lawson's latest involves a way to pay for wastewater treatment and help small towns and counties upgrade their sewer systems.

The Democrat from Tallahassee is proposing a 2-cent-per-roll tax on toilet paper.

"We've got 17 million people in this state and all of them can contribute to protecting our underground water supply," he said.

In a Republican-dominated Legislature that doesn't like new taxes, the idea could end up in the tank pretty quickly.

Senate President Tom Lee said he didn't think it would get too far, but didn't rule it out. "We'll be getting to the bottom of it real soon," he said.

Lawson's been enduring plenty of jokes - bathroom humor, you might say - but he says it's a serious issue. Even if the proposal passes the Legislature, it would need approval from Gov. Jeb Bush. The president's brother said if toilet paper is taxed, people might use less of it.

"That's not necessarily a good thing," he said. Fla. lawmaker's toilet paper tax likely to tank

Monday, March 14, 2005

BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Himalayan glaciers 'melting fast'

This report further confirmed about the conscern of Global Warm & the "Green House Effects".

There should be more immediate action to:

1. Plant more Trees worldwide

2. Reduce & EliminateThe Use of Fossil Fuels

3. Use More Solar, Wind or Fuel Cells Energy for offices, Homes & Industries

4. Cut down the number of Automobil

5. Encourage More Vege & fruits consumption.

6. Cut down on Meat & Poultry farmming.

7. Stop Cutting Trees worldwide.

Himalayan glaciers 'melting fast'
Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people, the conservation group WWF has warned.

In a report, the WWF says India, China and Nepal could experience floods followed by droughts in coming decades.

The Himalayas contain the largest store of water outside the polar ice caps, and feed seven great Asian rivers.

The group says immediate action against climate change could slow the rate of melting, which is increasing annually.

"The rapid melting of Himalayan glaciers will first increase the volume of water in rivers, causing widespread flooding," said Jennifer Morgan, director of the WWF's Global Climate Change Programme.

"But in a few decades this situation will change and the water level in rivers will decline, meaning massive eco and environmental problems for people in western China, Nepal and northern India."


The glaciers, which regulate the water supply to the Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Mekong, Thanlwin, Yangtze and Yellow rivers, are believed to be retreating at a rate of about 10-15m (33-49ft) each year.

The world faces an economic and development catastrophe if the rate of global warming isn't reduced
Jennifer Morgan, WWF
Hundreds of millions of people throughout China and the Indian subcontinent - most of whom live far from the Himalayas - rely on water supplied from these rivers.

Many live on flood plains highly vulnerable to raised water levels.

And vast numbers of farmers rely on regular irrigation to grow their crops successfully.

The WWF said the potential for disaster in the region should serve to focus the minds of ministers of 20 leading industrialised nations gathering in London for two meetings on climate change.

"Ministers should realise now that the world faces an economic and development catastrophe if the rate of global warming isn't reduced," Ms Morgan said.

Temperatures rising

She added that a study commissioned for the WWF indicated that the temperature of the earth could rise by two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels in a little over 20 years.

Allowing global temperatures to rise that far would be "truly dangerous", Ms Morgan said.

Nepal, China and India are already showing signs of climate change, the WWF report says.

Nepal's annual average temperature has risen by 0.06 degrees Celsius, and three snow-fed rivers have shown signs of reduced flows.

Water level in China's Qinghai Plateau wetlands have affected lakes, rivers and swamps, while India's Gangotri glacier is receding by 23 metres each year.
BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Himalayan glaciers 'melting fast'

Sunday, March 13, 2005

You can't Beat Soap and Water

The age old technique of washing hand certainly have it few thousand years of history backing.

But looking at today soap, there have many variance & additives in it. One must beware of the type of soap that they buy for their purpose..

My opinions is buying the natural soap is better than the fancy one.

You can't Beat Soap and Water
By John von Radowitz, PA Science Correspondent

For ridding hands of viruses, nothing beats old fashioned soap and water, scientists have discovered.

The biggest study yet comparing handwashing products found modern disinfectant cleansers were not good at tackling resistant viruses.

Soap and water worked better, because the infectious agents were simply removed from the skin and flushed down the drain.

Among the viruses susceptible to soap were those which caused the common cold, hepatitis A, acute gastroenteritis and polio.

The researchers, from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA, recommended that ordinary soap should be used in hospitals as well as waterless hand rubs and wipes.

They wrote in the American Journal of Infection Control: “Although viruses are a less common cause of health care associated infections than are bacteria, in situations in which infection with viruses is likely.. the use of soap and water washes should be considered.”

Antimicrobial agents were most efficient for reducing bacteria on the hands. But alcohol-based products – widely used in hospitals because of their convenience – performed relatively poorly.

Alcohol rubs became significantly less effective after hands were contaminated and washed a number of times over. And waterless wipes only removed half the bacteria from the hands.

The study was the first to test the ability of 14 different hand hygiene agents to tackle both bacteria and viruses.

It was also the first to investigate the effect of cleaning hands for just 10 seconds – the average time spent by doctors, nurses and other healthcare workers.

Dr Emily Sickbert-Bennet, who co-led the research, said: “Previous studies have had people clean their hands for 30 seconds or so, but that’s not what health-care workers usually do in practice, and we wanted to test the products under realistic conditions.”

A total of 62 adults took part in the study, in which five tests were performed on each of the 14 agents.

Volunteers first cleaned their hands and were then contaminated with the harmless bacterium Serratia marcescens and the virus MS2 bacteriophage.

MS2 is also harmless to humans, but similar in design to other viruses which can cause illness, such as hepatitis A.

The researchers said the results suggested it would be wrong for hospitals and other institutions to rely solely on alcohol-based cleaning products.

“Given the trend of a reduced efficacy of alcohol-based handrubs with multiple episodes, it is prudent to recommend traditional hand hygiene with an antiseptic agent or a non-antimicrobial soap periodically throughout the day,” they wrote.

Poor hand hygiene is known to contribute to hospital acquired infections such as MRSA, which cause an estimated 5,000 deaths in Britain each year.

The Government’s “cleanyourhands” campaign introduced through the National Patient Safety Agency aims to improve hygiene standards in the NHS.

A key element of the campaign is the placing of handrubs at the foot of beds and other places where staff have patient contact.

International research suggests that improved hand hygiene could reduce hospital infection rates by between 10% and 50%.

A Department of Health spokesperson said: “We agree with this useful study stating that both hand washing and hand disinfection are important in preventing patients from becoming infected.

“As the study suggests, the use of alcohol-based handrubs helps to improve hand hygiene compliance at locations where sinks are not available. Hand rubs can be positioned allowing staff to decontaminate their hands at regular intervals before each episode of patient contact.” News - Latest News - You can't Beat Soap and Water

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